Wednesday, 7 December 2016

How can we be safe in an online environment? #oeb16 workshop

Workshops tend to take at least half a day to come to a result. But at OnlineEduca I had the pleasure of meeting Christian Friedrich and it is amazing what this man can inspire people to do in just 60 minutes time!

To tackle the subject of 'how can we be safe in an online environment' and let people come up with ideas they did not know they had before in such a small period of time... is amazing. Admittedly, his material would enable a flipped workshop approach. Where - as an ideal participant - you would read up on all the material before coming to the workshop, but in this case, the participants simply did not have the time. OnlineEduca was packed with sessions, and this workshop was organised at the end of day 1, meaning that most of the participants were already slightly tired.
But somehow this did not affect Christian, for he got us to come up with a short statement on how we could safeguard our own ideas and writings while sharing ideas online.

If you can get Christian in your conference, I am sure that the resulting workshop will give the attending participants ideas, let them think about privacy, security, identity and contemporary digital traces.

For this workshop, the participants need to identify with a specific target group, then think about potential online risks they might face, and how to counter these risks. So, in a way it was all about openness versus privacy & security. Some interesting links provided by Christian: the ethics of big data in higher education, an introduction to online privacy, and Lawrie Phipps with a great analysis on the effect of algorithms, and an audio recording with Audrey Waters and Kin Lane on Online Ownership.

This was the result from the team effort of Jeanine Reuteman, Luca Morini, Christian Glahn and Marit from Denmark (sorry, I did not remember the full name) and myself.

Tuesday, 6 December 2016

Hybrid presence an emerging format #OEB16

Last week I had the pleasure of being part of a virtual connecting meeting at OnlineEducaBerlin. The initiative came from the VConnecting group. For this session, onsite buddies Christian Friedrich, Hoda Mostafa, and I spoke with guests Jeanine Reutemann (Jeanine researches the affordances of video and has great insights on it!). Ilona Buchem (Ilona has a long standing tech record, her latest research looks at open badges) and Aziza Ellozy (Aziza is a leader in faculty development, and making learning visible). The recording can be seen below (it was a hangout).

For those who are not familiar with the concept of Virtually Connecting through online buddies, have a look at the website. During Online Educa Berlin 2016 there were four virtual connecting meetings (I only could attend one, as I was chairing or speaking at the other moments), and it really provides an additional layer of interest to conferences. I had a previous experience with Whitney Kilgore at eMOOCs2015 which I blogged about here, and which worked inspiring as well.

The format has a basic idea behind it: connecting people with similar interests across conference boundaries (so those who can attend a conference, share knowledge that is provided within the conference to others who are unable to attend the venue).

Although the idea is simple enough, what is interesting is the emerging layer of knowledge that is transmitted. In some way those who attend get a meta layer going. Or at least that was what I felt when joining one of the virtual connecting sessions. When reflecting on why this extra - and to me meaningful layer of learning emerges - I had the idea that it might come from the available expertise in all who entered the conversation. The shared yet complementary expertise gave spice to the conversation, sparking new ideas and links to previous experiences on topic. And I think it was also related to similar interests that come together at that point, and drive the conversation forward. 

In the session that I was in, the conversation covered the plenary keynotes, some ideas coming from the keynote speakers and how we (participants in the virtual meeting) agreed or disagreed, the overall feeling of the conference, the formats and the consequent results of the sessions...

#OEB16 results from personalised learning session #personalLearning

This session, which I facilitated at OEB16, had one of the ‘slow cooking’ formats. It takes time for all the elements to come together, and you work with those elements you find in the room (so thank you to all the participants) and … somehow magic happened as you can see from the results shared below. Each of the participants got this synopsis sent to them. The participants had a background in volunteering (and supporting the volunteers across the country through offering online solutions to their questions), corporate environments (ranging from actual online developers, to medical support professionals, to management), and academics & teachers. All of us are faced with similar challenges as the world keeps coming up with technical solutions and keeps changing, where our task as educational technologists/trainers is to keep bridging the divides created by change and innovative technology.

The aim of this OEB session: enabling personalised learning by sharing experiences/knowledge
In this blogpost, I will first share the list of challenges that we (all who participated) came up with (pictures), then share the actions that could lead to solutions (also 5 pictures from the flip papers), and finally the way I interpret those challenges and solutions. To all, feel free to add your interpretation, as many brains make stronger solutions.

The list from the challenges we face: grouped as learning characteristics, technology and media, individual & collaborative learning, contexts, and organising learning.

The list of solutions we started to think off:

How can we enable personalised learning looking at what the participants shared. My interpretation of what we came up with:

From trainer/teacher perspective:
  • Try to cater to intrinsic motivation: solutions for the learner, adding to the interest of the learner, using tools the learner feels comfortable with.
  • Provide options for just-in-time learning (the concept comes from mobile learning, but the reality is that we live in a constantly connected world where just-in-time is more broadly available, yet under-used).
  • Deliver authentic learning opportunities. This includes selecting people in the field/workfloor to become trainers/teachers (eg. Offer action cam to record actual processes).
  • Crowdsourcing the learners for needs and solutions. Start from learning goals the learners might have: start from their learning goals to direct them to solutions, or – if the solutions is not yet existing – allow them to share a solution once they found it. This means following up on problems put forward by the learner. Maybe built a channel or list with problems or needs voiced by the learners.
  • The learner-generated products (movies, written problem solving options… all media) must be made retrievable afterwards in order for these materials to be found: meaningful meta tagging, offer strands of learning (see next point).
  • Offer strands of learning: e.g. offer Continued Professional Development options per field, where learners can register for updates on particular fields (e.g. if they work on language learning, provide a push-solution that notifies them when a new bit of information is available (a push-solution is a messaging service that pushes news towards either a mobile or internet-connected device to which people are registered. For instance: registering for an online list which only shares new information in one particular field). Another strand of learning is a blockchain learning option that can be build: one learner finds a solution for learning how to draw in YouTube (and shares it on a central list), another learner begins advanced learning by following a MOOC on it (and shares it)… where at the end the learners have collaboratively set up an informal curriculum for learning how to draw and become really good at it. Use micro-learning as a way to solve small needs, yet be able to organise these micro-learning moments into a larger learning pathway.
  • Stimulate informal as well as formal learning inside and outside the institute/company/organisation: if someone faces a problem, but they found a solution outside the company/university… then tell them where they can share that location or solutions.
  • Increase literacy skills by a variety of ways: using fun games, and formal dry options, … when digital literacy skills increase, more tech solutions can come from the learner.
  • Make learners aware of copyright options.


From a manager perspective:
  • We need to activate the experts: enabling durable sharing of expertise. Reach those who are willing to become champions for specific topics or skills.
  • A sharing culture is something that needs to be visible and used at all levels: top managers sharing what they learn, as well as volunteers. Leadership in sharing and collaborating must happen at all levels.
  • Make the outcomes of learning visible (indicators, productivity…) to show that investment in learning pays off.
  • Provide socializing spaces and times: on many occasions people keep information to themselves, until they hear others are also facing the same problems. By creating more social spaces, more information exchange can take place.
  • Allow learner-generated production time to take place (this is a way to compensate those learners who are willing to be champions in a specific field and allow them to deliver useful material).
  • Set up a learning support task force (a new product is launched, or a new production line or workflow needs to be implemented; the support task force can help with building change enablers or customised content with the help of the learners/workers/volunteers): instructional designers, media savvy people that can help to make learner-generated media/products be disseminated across the group/department/peer experts.
  • Provide a clear pathway from the moment a problem arises at the learner/worker/volunteer level: if something is a problem, to whom must they convey the problem and how. And once the problem is communicated, how will it be solved/acted upon (and by whom). Making these learning/teaching pathways transparent to all.
  • Designate content curators: allow people with expertise to curate content for a group. Make the curated content available to the rest of the group, like digital newspapers that highlight potentially useful new insights.


From developers perspective:
  • Integrate self-evaluation or visible learning options inside learning apps/designs/hard-& software.
  • Allow inside and outside information to be gathered or linked to: to enable learners to add additional information that might help others.
  • Use more learning solutions from the mobile learning evidence-based theories: make learning seamingless, use augmented/alternate reality options, just-in-time learning, provide access to immediate sharing of knowledge opportunities (e.g. mobile movies streaming from a device, sharing descriptions to an easily retrievable specific field content area).
  • Allow collaborative learning to take place: enable group formation to communicate more efficiently or intuitively to work on a problem.
  • Allow integration of existing tools (that way the learner can come into your tool, while still using their own preferred media).
  • Make the data that users produce secure, yet allowing them to share on other platforms (if it is allowed, and they want to).
  • Provide a granular approach, that can be embedded into existing systems, yet adds easy micro-learning options.
  • Create ways to indicate the usefulness of any part of the solution.


From a learner perspective:
  • Make learning visible for the learner: showing them the progress they have made (projects, building digital or real life artefacts), provide self-evaluation options (e.g. reflecting on the process, thus increasing meta learning skills).
  • Learning how to describe an existing need: knowing how to isolate the problem, where to go to next, and describing it to others that might be able to help.
  • Share with others (in corporate terms: Work Out Loud). Sharing can be quite scary at first, but sharing makes your own learning visible, it allows others to see you as a champion, and it increases your skills and knowledge as you automatically reflect deeper on any subject as you share with others.
  • Daring to fail: learn that it is okay to fail at first, but simply keep doing something if you think it will be useful in the end.
  • Built a network of people that are expert in your field of interest.


When looking at the above, I think that in most cases information is available, but enabling people to be able to find (and distinguish) good quality information, and resharing that new knowledge is still a challenge. The thought that sharing is caring, and will help all of us, must be either reinforced or reignited. 

Friday, 2 December 2016

Limitless learning plenary #OEB16 on owning learning

A great set of speakers, all talking on the subject of owning learning (some limitless)

Alec Couros
Promise of open and connected learning is the subject. Promise of personalised learning is one of the elements that have changed in the last few years. The ownership.
Help with bowdril youtube is example of the strength of weak ties. Everyone has access to networks today. The longtail of learning helps to connect with people for niche learning.
Post napster idea of MIT giving 2002 all their materials away via the internet. Youtube is the ultimate MOOC as so many people have learned their own passion.
Audrey Clemens is another kid that he learned and shared through the web.
#learningproject (part for students): how can we learn from the web, and document the learning through web options. (eg Bob Ross tutorials to learn painting).
So if we can google it, why teach it. This is a bit of techno utopianism that we need to be critical off. Tech utopia , Langdon Winner on mythinformation. (from searching for the limits book).
Neil Postman on 5 things we need to know about technological change. It is not an attitude, but a ecological…
Emerging challenges for open learning:
information literacies; filter bubbles and fake news (Eli Pariser, youtube beware of filter bubbles).
Blue feed,, Red feed: looking at the tail of two different tail news. Very good article.
Most students don’t know when news is fake (wallstreet journal).
Trevelyan (1942) what is worth reading and easy prey to sensations.
Attention literacy: Mcluhan, heavy media multitaskers impacting learning and attention.
Problems of identity: resume is replaced by online portfolio (eg). One option is universities providing you with your own domain name for you to fill with relevant information.
We live in a world where one single tweet can change our lives for bad or for good.
Cybercrime: romance scams: fake network accounts (catfishing) to get money.
Greater societal problems: when we ask students to come to the web, this is not a perfect world and it is getting more hostile. Geography of hate website.
We need to really think about what we teach students on getting online tools.


Diana Laurillard
Who owns the responsibility of for learning. (using the conversational framework, see picture)
The outline of her argument is: what it means by learning, and what it takes to teach in the digital world, who owns the responsibility fr learning, how to plan the shift to effective blended learning, the education context for teachers and leaders. So her point is more formal, where alex couros’s focus was more on the informal, passionate learning.
What does it take us to learn formally? The point of the conversational framework was to distill the learning and put it into a fairly simple framework.
(see picture), and the idea should be to widen the learning conversations to embed all of these types of learning and interactions.
Question: teaching presence ? when a teacher is taken out of the framework. This is where education comes in, as it can cater specific learning that would take you much more time to get there. So the teacher provides something that you cannot reach quickly yourself.
The teaching workload is increased in terms of … (see picture).

Using learning technologies is our best bet to be able to do this. So, to Diana these are exciting times to be in education.
Challenges: MOOCs are free education for highly educated professionals most of the time. So we need to use the technology to scaffold/cascade those who do need education and cut off.
One option is to use MOOCs for teachers, as they are following MOOCs anyway, but aiming the course at training teachers for their profession.
Who owns the responsibility of learning? The new digital demands we make on teacher time will effect the time and tasks they need to do.
Learners were collaborating, working online in both class and at home, online.
Balance of responsibility looking at teacher and learners? With technology we can enhance the advocacy of both. Teachers should be able to think through how they can support learners with tech for independent learning.
Shift planning towards blended learning.  Modelling learning benefits versus teaching costs: see
The drivers are strong but not aligned with digital. And we invest in the enablers, which are weak if you do not have the drivers for innovation. Unlock the power of the teachers to support more blended learning, more personalised learning. Teaching is a design science, lets trust the teachers to do this.



Martin Eyjolfsson
He wondered about why Icelandians seem to be more creative? Because Icelandians are happy… but why?
Only a few of us young people know what they want to do later on in life… this calls for creative solutions to bring passion to their life. A massive participation from an early age into society. So becoming a jack of many trades from an early age onward to feel society, to keep an open mind and be a free spirit. Bjork has a project biophilia (http://biophiliaeducational.org/ ), which learns kids about creativity.   

Mark Surman from Mozilla
Web literacy empowers people and keeps the internet healthy. The stakes are getting higher on what internet means for education and for humanity.
What does it mean to have a healthy internet? Mozilla has a motto: guard the open nature of the internet. And this was said when it was launched in 2003 but it still rings true.
The internet is made by multiple people and in a way by us all. The internet is an ecosystem built by us, but we need to keep it healthy. But many things have happened.
The internet of things is increasingly becoming  reality. Every aspect of us will become connected. This also means it becomes an increased risk, as AI is embedded in these systems and filtering bubbles as well. Some of the risks of this ecosystem is IoT botnets are growing and they are up for hire. Where devices are much less secured. We have an increasing cybersecurity risk that risks of taking whole companies down. The stakes are very high.
What is the social structure as we live in an increasingly connected society? There is a digital divide (eg demographic digital divide is real and pervasive). The digital power and opportunities influence divides. Those divides are global.
Structures of economy are part of the healthy internet, eg major app producers are in the North, where growing smartphone use in South, so new/old colonial.
(look up latest worldbank report as it was actually critical and of interest).
Imperial ambitions from US and China corporations using the internet. Mozilla makes products with values and ethics embedded in them, but increasingly Mozilla found that the need to be part of a larger trend to keep internet health. We as Mozilla are choosing to become more political.
Teaching this to help people realize what the digital world is, is one of the best activist actions to take and be part of. This is an important activist role.
Are we teaching the right things? Web literacy is an important citizen skill, yet we do not take it seriously enough in schools. This is reading and writing and participating in the digital world. Critical reading skills as well as participation skills, and creativity is critical as a skill. We need to be successful to be a productive force.
www.theglassroomnyc.org as a way to interactively make people more web literate.
Why Europe’s new copyright proposals are bad news for the internet (see fortune article), the outcome of this debate will have a massive effect on citizenship in Europe. It might be giving an free road to censor personal internet content on a massive scale. It will have an effect on free digital speech.
Look at www.changecopyright.org which is just getting going, and Mozilla wants teachers and young people to be involved in.


Thursday, 1 December 2016

#OEB16 opening plenary live blogpost on owning learning

Owning learning: A great session with a range of experts on the topic of current learning problems… and possible solutions. This is a live blogpost.

Tricia Wang (designing for perspectives: the secret for learners to thrive in the 21st Century)
The individuals are getting too much of the blame. We need to design for perspectives, (@triciawang ).
Sally Ride was the first female astronaut. Once she stopped flying she developed earthKAM, which enables teachers to use the camera on the space station. The students can select the coordinates, and it gives the students a hands-on space experience.
The power of using tech and learning, at best the students really feel science. It introduces a new perspective for students. Video and photography provides participatory options for learning. Technology has seen so many innovations now applied to learning, it is mindblowing. Machine learning is a fancy term to describe what we do with computers, where computers get actions from humans.
Machine learning is a 3;7 billion industry, but what are its limitations? Machine learning still requires human designers and quality data. If the humans overseeing the training are not aware of their own biases, these biases result in the output.
Technology has not increased our understanding of the world. Example: the white interpretation of google photo’s. It is a result of failing to see outside of our perspective.
These technology mishaps happen a lot. Machine biases, Propublica 23 May 2016. (the high risk offender example).
Machines are directing our learning, as such biases in these machines might result in more biases in learning. No one wants these biases to be embedded in machine learning. But the outcomes reveal the limited perspectives of their creators. And this happens easily, perspective collisions happen.
Representing heterogeneity is a difficult challenge. We are still not truly globally connected. The social part is something all of us have a hard time with. Getting a multiplicity perspective is the challenge. There s a lot of confusion, as everyone gets to speak, this means all of that ends up into the social texture of life. So we need to teach people to navigate their own lives through this new social, machine lead system. Perspective shifting, a new form of media literacy, taking into account people that are not like you. This will be one of the most critical skills, but humans need to be trained for this. It is a learning behaviour, so qualitatively learning these skills is possible and should be a priority to enable a global world with true equality.
Relying only on quantitative data, it risks us to be blind by the known. This is why we need people that can actually address these multiple perspectives. To get outside the binary: replace the binary divide with the connected network, to ask different questions (computers replace humans), but why do we not ask what humans can do to work with computers to reduce biases. Always integrate both quantitative AND qualitative data to eliminate the risk of bias. In a pluralistic society, we need this approach.
Look up caroline synders or sinnders… for work with machine learning and ethonographers.

Andreas Schleiger (supporting learners globally to own learning)
The last couple of years we all got experienced at coping with economic crisis. If you look at who found solutions, skills seem to be the key driver to battle inequality or crisis. People at the high end of the skill spectrum see themselves as actors, while the low end sees themselves as objects.
Even today, corporates tell us there are no skilled workers, yet more people are looking for jobs.
So it is about skills and using them, learning them.
How to be ready for social problems, like jobs that will be erased. It is not about robots, just about automation. But augmented reality can bring the real world into any location. Google knows everything, and there is a huge challenge that is coming our way. There is no longer a digital economy. The economy is a digital economy.
People work harder now, then ever before, but the declining levels of productivity is affecting work. There is a growing divide that people with the right skills have less opportunities, thus those without skills have even less options.
The race between technology and skills.
Digital problem solving skills: finding solutions for every day problems. Only 1 in 5 people above 50 years can do this. Even if we look at people 16 – 24 suffer, as only one in two young people can solve every day challenges.
Lots of people are being left outside. The only area where employment grows is the high skills jobs. This is where the economy is quite stable (admittedly, the pay is decreasing for these jobs).
What skills are important: knowledge, integration of different fields of knowledge (think like historian, philosopher, technology… all at the same time will increase your skills and stability). And then looking at details to solve problems via different viewpoints.  
The world rewards for the opposite, for thinking about systems, not the details.
Digital literacy, global literacy… those different perspectives become the challenge.
Skills that matter today is critical thinking, creative thinking. Solving complex problems, social skills, communication…
But something controversial as skills is: resilience, figuring out problems when you cannot see the solutions, curiosity, mindfulness, ethics, courage, leadership, inclusion, empathy. Making judgments becomes more important, that is complex. Self-awareness.
Everything we do reinforces what we did when we were young. If we think of the science changes… it is amazing, we have developed 3D printing, iphones, google maps… you no longer need to teach people something, but skills.
Fundamental success in life: numerical skills (eg data), there is a direct relationship between low skills and declining jobs.
You no longer need to accumulate degrees, but contemporary skills mentioned above.

Literacy skills, learning to learn, cross-sectional skills. We need to teach people these skills to enable them to be able to find the right jobs. 

Roger Schank (who owns learning, not you, maybe AI can help).
This is a person you just need to talk to. The talk will be hilariously invigorating. 
Who owns learning is my question. Everyone but yourself. As the system tells you what to learn, with similar requirements, interpretations of what is best. 
Eliminate testing. The politicians support the testing industry. And forcing testing, forces what teachers need to teach.
Let’s built online learning that does not suck and really teaches us a lot of useful skills. 
Artificial Intelligence: at a certain moment it was put in the freezer due to over-expectation at some point. But now it is again a big business.
At present models human intelligence, but it is not. Schank mentions AI mentor (look up). 

#OEB16 the exhibition ideas and a great peer reviewing tool

What do you look for, when you are wandering through multiple online learning stands at a conference? I start out looking around just out of curiosity, but as soon as I get a few stalls further… I get ideas. Positive and negative one’s.

Let me start with a really nice surprise. The Peergrade was the best surprise (for me). David Kofoed Wind (from Denmark) built this during his PhD years. It is a truly practical, amazingly efficient and directly applicable peer reviewing software. And, any teacher can use it for free. The software is written in python, with some java scripting… and it looks magnificent.
You can use the software to let students or learning peers of any kind to review the work of others. The software offers:
·        A really easy to use option for setting up a comprehensive rubric (yes/no questions, commenting feedback, scaling options)
·        A nice interface to use these rubrics for evaluation, and nice additions for grading these learner reviews
·        Dashboard visuals that let you see disparities at a glance. Useful meta visuals to see where a potential discussion happens (good from teacher perspective)
So, as a teacher, you can see in just a couple of glances which projects or documents are creating skewed reviews/discussions, where you might need to add your own feedback to clear the air of a discussion, you can also immediately see how good the reviewing process is of each learner, you can even discuss meta reviewing data… I was truly impressed by the scale of the options and the practical use of the program. So have a look if you are searching for a peer review option with multiple uses. The dashboards are really worthwhile to have a look at, such meta-learning visualisation options… Really, great. Especially, as learners will get more feedback on their work and get a deeper understanding of what the actual process from different angles.

Another option which triggered an idea, was provided by LinkLearning. The development of this self-contained software is still in progress, but it made me think. The software enables courses to be built in the cloud, but the learner can use the courses both online and offline (nice and necessary contemporary element for every type of LMS). They also use a very visual layer for courses, which helps to stay on top of content. But what got me excited was the fact that you could build your own course, and than integrate it in any type of LMS (if I understood correctly). This means you could let students/learners build a course or part of a curriculum, by using (creative commons based) course content from the web, not only curating content, but constructing it into an actual course, while letting you keep that course set-up as you move to other platforms. So, I thought that would be something nice, being able to build your own curriculum. This would be useful for training teachers ... I think I might go for something like that in a future class. A long project, asking students/learners to build me part of a curriculum that would be useful for them later on as well, so closely related to a niche topic of their choice, that they could simply use (either immediately, offering them authentic teaching credentials, or later, saving lesson prep time).

On another note, most of the stalls at exhibition events look magnificent, they are made out of big colourful cardboard … just to make an impression. And most of those stall carry big hype-driven words: personalised learning (which is interpreted on many occasion as: it is available on any mobile, truly funny), or take control of your own learning (which is mostly not what I would consider it to be actual curating your own content for learning, but rather meaning: we provide you the content, and you plan when to learn it). This year I also started looking at stalls that I simply do not get.

Companies (more then one!) that offer assessment ID security… Why?! For if we need such software’s, than it is clear to me that education is not at all as disrupted as some say it is. Software that will keep an assessment taker from using any type of solution that might help her/him in solving problems at hand in a test is more an expression of bad assessment tests. First of all, a test of any kind should be so well conceived, that a) you would never be able to solve it without already existing deep knowledge, even if you had 3 hours of any type of internet access and b) that those type of assessments should only make up a fraction of any complete curriculum testing. Why would assessment without access to any type of help be considered as the ultimate testing option ?! It is completely non-social, and thus non-human – thank you Aristotle.  


Thursday, 17 November 2016

Free mobile learning papers from mLearn2016 conference in Sydney #mLearning #mobile

This is a great set of mobile learning papers (proceedings available here) written for the 15th mLearn conference that was organised in Sydney, Australia on 24-26 October 2016. The theme chosen for the conference was Mobile Learning Futures – Sustaining Quality Research and Practice in Mobile Learning.
Sustainability and quality are the keys to mobile learning. Future mobile learning research needs to look beyond technological intervention per se. Instead, it must consider a more ecological approach, in which the conditions under which mobile technology contributes to learning are closely examined. The preconditions for sustainability in mobile learning may be broadly categorized as:
  • Economic (financial considerations)
  • Political (leadership, equity and policy)
  • Social (community engagement)
  • Technical (infrastructure, security, devices, applications) and
  • Pedagogical (teaching and learning).
This sustainable and broadly societal focus, provides mLearning proceedings that cover a wide variety of impactful mLeanring insights. Issues to consider include teachers‘ technological and pedagogic expertise when evaluating the effects of mobile technology on learning and the achievement of the goals of instruction. The subject matter is an important factor, as are also students‘ attributes, background and age, and their mobile digital literacy. Authentic assessments that provide evidence of learning are needed. Other factors include institutional and expert leadership, the physical environment, resources, professional development, collegiality, and a commitment to mobile learning implementation and policy.

The papers range from the indigenous use of mobile learning, wearable technologies, eyetracking for gaming, teaching digital citizenship, simulation games, augmented realities, micro-credentials and mobile assisted language learning.

Table of Contents
Section I: PAPERS
Faculty Attitudes towards the Use of Mobile Devices in EFL Teaching in a Saudi Arabian Setting
Radhi Alshammari, Vicente Chua Reyes Jr and Mitchell Parkes

The Use of Wearable Technologies in Australian Universities: Examples from Environmental Science, Cognitive and Brain Sciences and Teacher Training
Victor Alvarez, Matt Bower, Sara de Freitas, Sue Gregory and Bianca de Wit

Ariane: A Web-Based and Mobile Tool to Guide the Design of Augmented Reality Learning Activities
Victor Alvarez, Juan Ramón Pérez-Pérez, MPuerto Paule and Sara de Freitas

Survive with the VUVU on the Vaal: Eyetracking Findings of a User Interface Evaluation of a Mobile Serious Game for Statistics Education
A. Seugnet Blignaut, Gordon Matthew and Lizanne Fitchat

Perceived Utility and Feasibility of Wearable Technologies in Higher Education
Matt Bower, Daniel Sturman, Victor Alvarez

Nurturing Collaborative Networks of Practice
Thomas Cochrane and Vickel Narayan

Location-Based Mobile Learning Games: Motivation for and Engagement with the Learning Process
Roger Edmonds and Simon Smith

Investigating Children‘s E-Reading Behaviour and Engagement using iPads in First and Second Grade
Seyedeh Ghazal Ghalebandi and Noorhidawati Abdullah

Negotiating Cultural Spaces in an International Mobile and Blended Learning Project
Charlotte N. Gunawardena, Agnieszka Palalas, Nicole Berezin, Caitlin Legere, Gretchen Kramer and Godwin Amo-Kwao

Landscape and Literacy on Aboriginal Country
Olivia Guntarik and Aramiha Harwood

Using Web 2.0 Tools to Support Student Writing
Susan Gwee and Shalini Damodaran

Teaching Digital Citizenship in Higher Education
Boris Handal, Sandra Lynch, Kevin Watson, Marguerite Maher and Grace Hellyer

Flipped Learning Approach for a University EFL Course: Utilizing an Online Communication System
Yasushige Ishikawa, Yasushi Tsubota, Craig Smith, Masayuki Murakami, Mutsumi Kondo, Ayako Suto, Koichi Nishiyama, and Motoki Tsuda

A Mobile Learning Framework for Developing Educational Games and Its Pilot Study for Secondary Mathematics Education
Yanguo Jing and Alastair Craig

Designing an Engaging Healthcare Simulation Game
Tuulikki Keskitalo and Hanna Vuojärvi

A Mobile Reader for Language Learners
Jemma König, Ian Witten and Shaoqun Wu

Mobile Learning as a Tool for Indigenous Language Revitalization and Sustainability in Canada: Who Will the Pipe Holders Be?
Marguerite Koole and Kevin wâsakâyâsiw Lewis

Mobile Learning in Practical-based Subjects: A Developing Country Perspective
Suzaan Le Roux

Learning beyond Classroom Walls: A Case Study on Engaging Learners with Mobile Devices in Dance and Drama
Zihao Li

Reboot Your Course – From Beta to Better
Zoe Lynch and Michael Sankey

A Theory-ology of Mobile Learning: Operationalizing Learning Theories with Mobile Activities
Kathryn MacCallum and David Parsons

Responsive Web Design: Experience at the National Distance University of Costa Rica
Seidy Maroto-Alfaro and Yeudrin Durán-Gutiérrez

Analysing Student-Generated Digital Explanations
Wendy Nielsen, Helen Georgiou, Annette Turney and Pauline Jones

Changing Use of Social Media Tools by Preservice Primary Teachers to Learn Science
Wendy Nielsen, Amir Rezaaee and Rachel Moll

Encouraging Faculty Development through Micro-Credentialing
Lisa O‘Neill

A Mobile Sensor Activity for Ad-Hoc Groups
David Parsons, Herbert Thomas, Milla Inkila

Conserv-AR: A Virtual and Augmented Reality Mobile Game to Enhance Students‘ Awareness of Wildlife Conservation in Western Australia
Luke Phipps, Victor Alvarez, Sara de Freitas, Kevin Wong, Michael Baker and Justin Pettit

Bring-Your-Own-Device or Prescribed Mobile Technology? Investigating Student Device Preferences for Mobile Learning
David Reid and Ekaterina Pechenkina

How a Blended, M-Learning Approach to Student Evaluations Increases Participation Rates
Chris Tisdell and Alex Usachev

Using Cloud Drive for Collaborative Learning in Adult Training
Hwee Leng Toh-Heng

A Theory of Enhancement of Professional Learning for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Pre-service Teachers in Very Remote Communities through Mobile Learning
Philip Townsend

Enhancing Workplace Learning through Mobile Technology: Barriers and Opportunities to the Use of Mobile Devices on Placement in the Healthcare and Education Fields
Franziska Trede, Peter Goodyear, Susie Macfarlane, Lina Markauskaite, Celina McEwen and Freny Tayebjee

Does the Mobility of Mobile Learners across Locations Affect Memory?
Chrysanthi Tseloudi and Inmaculada Arnedillo-Sánchez

Let‘s Learn Business Japanese with Learning Log System and E-book
Noriko Uosaki, Mahiro Kiyota, Kousuke Mouri, Hiroaki Ogata and Chengjiu Yin

Introducing Mobile Videos for Academic Support
Mari van Wyk and Linda van Ryneveld

Learning Official Crisis Communication through Decentralized Simulations enabled by Mobile ICTs
Hanna Vuojärvi and Tuulikki Keskitalo

Location-Based Vocabulary Learning App
Shaoqun Wu, Karun Pammi and Alex Yu

Learning Collocations with FLAX Apps
Alex Yu, Shaoqun Wu, Ian Witten and Jemma König

Factors in Designing an Augmented Reality M-Learning Trail with Place-based Pedagogy in Residential Education
Kevin K. Yue, Lisa Y. Law, Hiu Ling Chan, Jade B. Chan, Elaine Y. Wong, Theresa F. Kwong and Eva Y. Wong
Section II: PRACTITIONERS‟ PRESENTATIONS

Designing Physics Courses to Increase Student Engagement for Online and Mobile Environments
Elizabeth Angstmann, John Reddin and Matthew Burley

Building a Campus-Wide Mobile Platform that Focuses on Enhancing Student Effectiveness and Learning
Matthew Burley, Alexander Roche and John Reddin

Designing for Mobile Learning
Lucila Carvalho and Pippa Yeoman

Lighting a FUSE Program for Student Engagement and Differentiated Learning with Mobile Technologies
Scott Diamond and Andrew Brown

Pedagogy GO: Enhancing Educational Experiences with Location-Based Mobile Learning Games
Roger Edmonds and Simon Smith

Mobile Learning: An Innovative Approach that Puts the Control of the Internet of Things into the Hands of Primary School Students
Deborah Evans and Alix Spillane

Teaching Arabic Alphabet using EBook Widgets
Hany Fazza

Integrating iPads into Science Teaching and Learning
Heidi Hammond and Linda Clutterbuck

Google Classroom in My Classroom
Nicole Holgersson

Sustaining Mobile Learning Pedagogies with High Possibility Classrooms: A Vision for Teacher Education in Australian Universities
Jane Hunter and Ariane Skapetis

Why Gamified Learning and Using Games to Teach are not the Same Thing
Michael Kasumovic

Using Mobile Serious Games Technology to Enhance Student Engagement and Learning in a Postgraduate Ethics Classroom: A Case Study
Gillian McGregor and Emma Bartle Our ‗Have a go, Share and eValuate‘

iPad Learning Journey: From Implementation to Acceptance
Damien McGuire

Mobile Phone Potential in Secondary School Classrooms
Gus McLean

A Global Classroom: The ACO Music & Art Program
Vicki Norton and Zoe Arthur

Accepting the Challenge of Adapting Traditional Faculty Development to Online and Mobile Environments
Lisa O‘Neill

How Does a Mobile App Incorporate Facebook-Style Social Connectivity within a Learning Platform?
Alexander Roche, Josephine Chan, Anthony Chung and Matthew Burley

How Does a Mobile Platform Address TEQSA and Other Regulatory Compliance for Online Courses?
Alexander Roche, Josephine Chan, Anthony Chung and Matthew Burley

Online Tutorials and GeoGebra as Mobile Learning Tools
Norman J. Wildberger and Joshua Capel

Saturday, 29 October 2016

42 or why one college does not wipe out previous options #education

When the BBC reported on the French/US college named '42', which is build around the idea of peer learning, without the interference of teachers. This new educational initiative (and yes, I do choose 'educational' to be in the description) was once again propagated as a unique solution to education.

Although I am not a product of traditional formal education, and I do acknowledge gaps in the formal education system, I also think there is no single educational or learning solution. This fits in with the idea that I do not think Human is the single species on earth, nor that Earth would be the single, life creating planet. Evolution is seldom based on single solutions, it is the complex and ever changing dynamic of different elements. MOOCs and 42 are not the solution for education, just as humans are not the solution for peace (clearly). It is a positive, engaging combination of elements that makes things happen, one where ethical considerations are discussed and used as guidelines for next steps, or - in case of nature's evolution - options are tested out in a natural equation that is aimed at keeping a balance, a mutual beneficial equilibrium. So at best, each element is a timely part of the overall equilibrium to move us forward, or simply to keep us moving.

Admittedly this no-teacher solution does have benefits, as peers learn from each other, which increases problem based solutions, collaborative efforts... etcetera. Yes, this works for those reasons. But do have some side remarks: coding lends itself to peer-to-peer learning as it is already set up as Lego building blocks in many cases (not all, I admit). This means that although no teachers are present at that moment in time, others (which could be seen as teachers as they choose content, made combination of coding combinations) did provide the basic foundation. Having said this, this approach also risks of duplicating what exists (true, could also happen in traditional schools, but that is why philosophy is in many cases part of any curriculum to have the hope of critical field thinking triggered). Coding does not start from scratch, just like language... but critical thinking does review language (gender capital embedded in words, sayings that divide society...) and this should happen for the coding language as well, while it is coded. This enriching historical context is something that is not something you learn early on in life (exceptions noted). Which is why it is a real positive addition to any type of learning.

The 42 college seems to work and I am honestly glad that it does. All initiatives resulting on getting more people educated get my vote. But I do hope there is room for a critical thinking influx that will enable critical thought. In the article Dan Butin already points out the benefits of having professors/teachers present to provide thought frameworks. But critical thought is necessary in all tech-oriented subjects, just like it is necessary in less-tech fields. Creating code, possibly adding algorithms, inside of Northern context made technologies to promote this coding... it risks to flatten diversity, which in the long-term slows down evolution. Or at least that what I think, but I admit I am trying to figure out how much diversity is good, and if there is such a thing as too much diversity. But still... any education and learning should at least try to be critical in order to at least ponder on possible effects of any chosen process.

For those who wonder about the name of the college '42', it is a reference to forty two as being the answer to life, the universe and everything (according to the Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy written by Douglas Adams).

Friday, 21 October 2016

#ic_moveme Challenges and opportunities of MOOCs in Iran by Shahrzad Ardavani

Education is an economic, political and social development and this idea and the problems this results in is tackled by research from Shahrzad Ardavani. 25% university students leave Iran: lack of jobs, superior research options, avoiding military service, candidates for suitable jobs in governments have to meet many non-professional related factors.

But what is a MOOC and hat does it stand for? Can digital learning of MOOC be applied to Iran and other developing countries. What are the pedagogical problems? MOOCs might not be as efficient for students in developing countries, they cannot feel the benefit of MOOCs due to a number of issues. Both infrastructure , language, educational policy makers concerned with international influence of MOOCs on the national educational system, some websites are restricted (culture and politics). Independent thinking is not encouraged. Coursera has attracted volunteers to translate MOOCs.
There are also problems from developing countries: ethos and pedagogic principles of MOOCs are aligned with the characteristics of educational terminology of their individual nation. The place where artefacts are being produced for FutureLearn overlooks barriers for global learners. The method of learning is different depending on the region, which is not always reflected in MOOCs.
A western tool carries western assumptions, eg. The users are not always familiar with self-directed learning. Therefor it is difficult to translate the MOOC platform to developing countries, in order to address these issues.

Symbiotic relationship: pedagogy of MOOCs looking at teaching approaches, disciplinary norms, the way learners interact within the course, participants learning culture. To investigate this, Engestrom’s activity theory (third generation) is being used, as it looks at the full system. It also allows a look at strength and weaknesses in a system. The project looks at FutureLearn, than compares native English students and Iranian students. To look at the differences between all elements.

(Inge sent link on activity theory from Grainne you saw passing on FB). 

#ic_moveme Janesh Sanzgiri on Critical reflections on MOOCs in India @janeshsanzgiri

Fabulous critical talk on MOOCs by Janesh Sanzgiri. In 2013 MOOCs were suggested as the silicon valley salvation of education, including the developing world. But the reality is that most MOOC participants are not the  underprivileged class, not really open anymore (movement to pay for assessment and so on). More importantly the current research is heavily skewed to Northern regions. The voice of the global south is being missed in research. 

In India MOOCs are used by 15% of Indian learners, MOOCs provided by North.

NPTEL (http://nptel.ac.in/ )was first an OER platform. In India the most privileged universities put their content online in 2006, mostly stem and technology courses. Another Indian platform is SWAYAM (https://swayam.gov.in/Home ) a government initiative to support the remote universities with MOOCs for credit. In india lack of infrastructure, lack of university systems to cope with the demand for educators. Looking at MOOCs is a way to look at high quality formal education beyond the high brow universities, who do not have access to many high quality professors and institutes. Challenges for accreditation, up to 20% of all the credits can be done via SWAYAM. The western elite institutions create content for the global south. But the fact that many countries are providing MOOCs to create solutions within their country and educational challenges.

Digital literacies and skills are needed for lower economic learners of these countries. Despite the increase of MOOCs, the South will work out solutions with supply and demand of MOOCs. MOOCs are not solving the poor and down trotted, therefor there is still the lowest layer of socio-economic society that is not reached, although more people are reached. 

Question why a lack of voices from the South? Answer: combination of issues, academic system in India is different, and journal issues (many Indian journals, but not always meeting the mark), global cohort is difficult to make transparent in terms of data, Indian MOOCs do not have access to the costly learning analytic options the North has.